With this post, I take a closer look at the Training Within Industry's Job Instruction course that I introduced in the post "The Origins of Lean Are Not All Japanese." One of the reasons, from a systems viewpoint, staff may not be performing well is inadequate training.
Job Instruction (JI) course
This course was designed to teach supervisors how to teach new workers. These people knew their jobs well and had a lot of experience, but many didn't understand how to teach someone else. This course showed them how to dissect the job into its individual steps and provided them with a standard way of instructing on a step-by-step basis. This was the nidus for Lean standardized work.
HOW TO GET READY
Have a Time Table--
how much skill you expect him to have, by what date.
Break down the job—
list important steps.
pick out the key points. (Safety is always a key point.)
Have everything ready—
the right equipment, materials and supplies.
Have the workplace properly arranged—
just as the worker will be expected to keep it.
HOW TO INSTRUCT
Step 1—Prepare the worker
Put him at ease.
State the job and find out what he already knows about it.
Get him interested in learning job.
Place in correct position.
Step 2—Present the operation
Tell, show and demonstrate one IMPORTANT STEP at a time.
Stress each KEY POINT.
Instruct clearly, completely and patiently, but no more than he can master.
Step 3—Try out performance
Have him do the job—correct errors.
Have him explain each KEY POINT to you as he does the job again.
Make sure he understands.
Continue until YOU know HE knows.
Step 4—Follow up
Put him on his own.
Designate to whom he goes for help.
Taper off extra coaching and close follow-up.
If the Worker Hasn't Learned,
The Instructor Hasn't Taught.
Below is an example of the Job Instruction method of teaching a new student how to clean an endotracheal tube after it has been used following our standardized work for the activity.
At this point, you can have the student go through the process another time or, if you feel confident of his ability, allow him to work independently. Be sure to praise him for his attentiveness, and give him permission to reconnect with you at any time for any additional assistance he may need.
As explained in the earlier post referenced above, the three TWI J-courses had a major influence on several of key concepts of the Toyota Production System, namely Standardized Work, respect for workers and continuous Improvement. But, true to Toyota’s character, they took that information, put their own “flavoring" on it, and developed what Mike Rother calls Toyota Kata.
Kata comes from the world of oriental, martial arts. It means “form.” There are two primary kata; Improvement Kata and Coaching Kata. I will look at Toyota Kata in the next post.
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